Antifragility and Anomaly; Why Science Works http://wp.me/p21T1L-dQ
Scientific theories are rarely refuted by counter-example. On the contrary, anomalies give information about special situations, leaving the scientific basis of the theory stronger, because better informed. Radiometric dating, planetary motions, and variations in atomic weights provide examples.
(One can find numerous other examples among the "difficulties," as Darwin termed them, in evolution science)